PubMed Google Scholar. Other studies have compared some of these templates (Bonifácio and Borba 2009; Santos et al. Tiwari and Gupta (2013) conducted a controlled experiment to assess the usefulness of eight use case templates against a set of five judging criteria, namely completeness, consistency, understandability, redundancy, and fault proneness. Microsoft Word format Use Case template: Use Case Template.doc: Microsoft Word format Use Case template (zipped) Use_Case_Template.zip: Rich Text Format Use Case template: Use_Case_Template.rtf description of the input and output formats of the FOAM tool. About This is a quick summary of how to write use cases. Furthermore, the work proposing an SPL use case template often does not empirically compare the proposed template with other templates. Other differences between the SR and the SM are (Kitchenham and Charters 2007; Neto et al. The keywords in this category are: Optional: The use case template supports the specification of optional steps; Mandatory alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one mandatory step; Mandatory alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one mandatory step out of which at least one must be selected; Optional alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one optional step; Optional alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one optional step out of which at least one must be selected. Bragança, A, Machado RJ (2005) Deriving software product line‘s architectual requirements from use cases: an experimental approach In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Model-BAsed Methodologies for PErvasive and Embedded Software.. Turku Centre for Computer Science, Turku, Finland. However, to the best of our knowledge, no efforts have been made to collect and summarize these existing templates. Each use case should provide some observable and valuable result to the actors or other stakeholders of the system. The students were associated to four universities in Brazil. In Section 5, we describe the controlled experiment conducted with the SPL use case templates. The final outcome of this process is a systematic map. However, it is important to note that, for this experiment, we did not use the feature model in the tasks. 2008). Several feature model languages have been proposed since the introduction of Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) by Kang et al. 2000). View Template and example for a use case textual description.docx from SWEN 645 at University of Maryland, Baltimore. Name and Description. This was also the preferred structure according to the results of the post-experiment questionnaire. In regards to the validity of the results, we discuss in the next paragraphs the internal and external validity. We also highlight that, in an SM, the articles are not evaluated regarding their quality, as the main goal is not to establish the state of evidence (Petersen et al. Tahap awal untuk membuat Use Case Description adalah dengan membuat tabel Use Case Description seperti yang terdapat di Gambar 2; Tahap Kedua adalah men-define: 1. Use Case Name: Place Order. Addison Wesley, Redwood City, CA, USA. 2003; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Choi et al. Our Systematic Mapping also addresses the variability modelling, but with focus on the specification of the variability in the user’s perspective through the textual use cases. 2014). 2003) present the Tags structure to deal with the SPL variabilities, while only two papers (Nguyen 2009; Gomaa 2004) have used the Specific Section structure and one (Anthonysamy and Somé 2008) has used Advice Use Case. The result analysis was then made from all cases with a correct answer to the final question. From Step 1 we found a large number by our search criteria. Writing use cases is a team sport. Use Cases describe functional requirements by using symbols and text to show how users will use the system. In this case, the significance value for time and accuracy do not exceed 0.05. The article you are reading now uses a generic use case specification template that combines the most common elements from the available templates. Related use cases can be grouped in the hierarchy. 2008), which describes the variability type with the Orthogonal Variability Model; and iii) the templates of Oliveira et al. Keep in mind that use cases are just textual descriptions, and their main purpose is to document the behavior of a system in a clear, concise, and understandable way. An example of this question is below: “Before selecting the amount of money, the user must: b) at least insert the chip card in the ATM, c) at least enter the fingerprint OR a sample voice, d) at least enter the PIN, and fingerprint or a voice sample. That interaction may be an online transaction where the Actor is a human user. The Systematic Mapping study is a type of secondary study that can complement Systematic Literature Reviews. However, they do not describe in the textual description the kind of variation (optional or alternative). 2005). In a search for secondary studies on variability modelling and requirements engineering, we found two Systematic Literature Reviews (SLR) (Kitchenham and Charters 2007) on Variability (Chen et al. The results related to the use of the Advice Use Case structure have shown the worst results for both accuracy and time to perform the tasks. You can use this example diagram to draw similar use cases in Creately. In a previous work (Santos et al. (2013) describes the variabilities as alternative scenarios. External validity With respect to the external validity, the use of students as subjects is a threat. Both these template structures describe the SPL variability in a use case without affecting the description of the main use case scenario. Alternatively a Use Cases may describe the interaction between two systems where no human is involved and in this case the Actor is the external system. Reinhartz-Berger, I, Sturm A (2014) Comprehensibility of uml-based software product line specifications. Guidance for Use Case Template. 2014)) adapted these artifacts in order to incorporate the SPL variability. It’s the interaction between the user and a software system. Brief description: Describes the role and purpose of the use case. After removing duplicate studies, and reading title and abstract of all the 2394 papers according to Step 2, the result was a set of 101 potentially relevant studies. RQ3: Which variability types can be modeled in textual use cases of an SPL? 1, 207–214.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. c For additional details please refer to our previous work (Santos et al. PASN conducted the result analysis and the hypothesis testing of the experiment. alternative steps with cardinality). 0 t Have you ever been disappointed when a new software release does not include that one common feature all users want? A wrong answer in this question signaled a serious error in the use of the templates. You can edit this template and create your own diagram.Creately diagrams can be exported and added to Word, PPT (powerpoint), Excel, Visio or any other document. In the SPL paradigm the concepts of feature and feature model are essential. Gallina and Guelfi (2007) propose a Use Case Elicitation Template (UCET) that provides special fields to collect information concerning variabilities: a) selection category, which specifies whether the use case is mandatory, optional or alternative; b) a description of variation points, and c) fault variation description, used to describe the faults strongly related to the variation points. IEEE Trans Softw Eng 40: 282–306. suggest that the features names should be clearly specified in the use case through the element named “Associated feature” and that the variations can be related to alternative scenarios within the use case. The final question was used to cut off the executions that had low quality. A use case is normally named as a verb-phrase and given a brief informal textual description. Table 1. The use of the Step Identifier structure has shown to have the best results in the experiment. Alferez, M, Bonifãcio R, Teixeira L, Accioly P, Kulesza U, Moreira A, Araújo J, Borba P (2014) Evaluating scenario-based spl requirements approaches: the case for modularity, stability and expressiveness. Anthonysamy and Somé (2008) propose an aspect-oriented use cases modelling approach to model product line systems that is supported by a tool called Use Case Editor (UCEd). In order to answer these research questions, we defined the following search string: (“use case” or “use cases”) and (“product line” or “product lines” or “product family” or “product families” or SPL). 2008). Fantechi, A, Gnesi S, Lami G, Nesti E (2004) A methodology for the derivation and verification of use cases for product lines In: Proceedings of the International Software Product Line Conference.. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40411-015-0020-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40411-015-0020-3, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in J Universal Comput Sci 20(5): 666–691. 2008; Jirapanthong 2009). Part of Springer Nature. The methodology adopted to conduct the systematic mapping and results are presented in Section 4. 2007; Oliveira et al. 2014) and two SLRs on requirements engineering within SPL Engineering (Alves et al. The system adds that album to the album library. Besides that, this structure was selected as preferred by only 3% of the volunteers according to the post-experiment questionnaire (considering only the 134 valid executions with the final question correct). Then, the maintainability could be a problem with the use of tags for specifying variabilities within the use cases descriptions. The goal of this study was also to estimate the time required to perform simple analysis tasks using both methods. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. However, we agree with Ferrari et al. We report the systematic mapping study in this section. Using the Specific Section structure, we have found only two templates (Gomaa 2004; Nguyen 2009). If so, understanding how use cases improve your business may be beneficial. Note that there are additional elements to a formal use case that may be included, but are not part of this example. Large significance values (>0.05) indicate that the observed distribution corresponds to the theoretical distribution. Kluwer Publishers, Norwell, MA, USA. The subjects using this template structure had better results in terms of time spent. 2004). Jirapanthong, W (2009) Analysis on relationships among software models through traceability activity In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advances in Information Technology (IAIT).. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. c These research questions were then translated into the following hypotheses: H c For agile development, a requirement model of many UML diagrams depicting use cases plus some textual descriptions, notes or use case briefs would be very lightweight and just enough for small or easy project use. H In: Käkölä T Duenas JC (eds)Software Product Lines Research Issues in Engineering and Management.. Springer, Brazil. Cockburn et.al. We highlight that Nguyen‘s template (Nguyen 2009) extends Gomaa‘s template (Gomaa 2004) to specify non-functional requirements. Use Cases are meant to represent the high level functional areas of the system, as represented in a ULM Use Case Model (or use case diagram). Use Case Diagram Template of Cellular Network Scenario making and receiving calls. Regarding the study language, the choice of the English language is justified to make this mapping study replicable and feasible. (2005), the Step Identifier structure is used to describe the variabilities. It is … Use Case Name: Place Order. https://sites.google.com/site/ismaylesantos/spl-use-case-experiment. Section 4 describes the related work. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2648511.2648523. Use case plays a significant role in the distinct phases of Software Development Life Cycle. Cite this article. Use cases are represented with a labeled oval shape. This template was found in 8 papers from the Step 03 (see Table 3). The results of this experiment show that the specification of variabilities in the steps’ numeric identifiers of the textual use cases is better to the use case understanding than the other approaches identified. ERQ1: Which of the evaluated template structures favors the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility? Tables1and2describe the elements of two prevalent templates; the Rational Uni ed Process use case template and Cockburn’s use case template . The experiment was conducted through of the following activities (see Fig. (Step Identifier structure), iii) Gomaa (Specific Section structure), and iv) Bonifácio and Borba (Advice Use Case structure). Santos, IS, Neto PAS, Andrade RMC (2013) A use case textual description for context aware spl based on a controlled experiment In: Proceedings of the CAISE‘13 Fórum.. CEUR-WS.org, Valencia, Spain. Input compris-es of textual use-cases and Temporal Annotation De nition Language (TADL) templates. Use case ID: A unique identifier used for tracing. Identify the Key Components of Your Use Case. The main purpose of this study is to map out existing templates for SPL use cases in the textual description form. Finally, management is related directly to the control of the processes and activities, in order to allow the previous two activities to work together. Kuloor and Eberlein (2002) described and compared requirements engineering techniques used in existing SPL practices. 11 - Product Line Use Cases: Scenario - Based Specification and Testing of Requirements. We also found this template in the work of Alferez et al. (2010) presented a Systematic Review of Requirements Engineering (RE) within Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE). The next step is to define the use case at a low level of detail. This use case is composed by one optional variant, related to the use of the PIN for the user’s identification, and two optional alternative variants, related with other two types of identification (through fingerprint or voice sample). In order to avoid threats related to the use of a single group, the four treatments (use case template structures) were used for all the subjects. (2005) were selected to the experiment because they are unique with their structures (Alternative Scenario and Step Identifer). Hollander, M, Wolfe DA (1999) Nonparametric Statistical Methods. In other words, use cases describe the conversation between a system and its user(s), known as actors. The use case template identified in the Bragança and Machado‘s paper (Bragança and Machado 2005) specifies the variation points through OPT and ALT tags. Finally, two main threats to the validity of this study are: i) potential bias in the papers’ selection, as this was performed by one reviewer, who is the primary author; and ii) some relevant use case templates may not be included. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Here are some of its characteristics: 1. Empirical Softw Eng 19(3): 678–713. The reason for using students in our study was the availability sampling technique. The SLR of Galster et al. The keywords in this category are: Tags: The use case template uses tags (e.g. Typically, the name expresses the objective or observable result of the use case, such as Withdraw Cash in the case of an automatic teller machine. In this section we describe the results of the systematic mapping study. Each step should state what the user does and/or what the system responds. It was firstly conducted between January and March 2014 (Santos et al. Use Case Pre-conditions and Post-Conditions Each use case should represent a discrete unit of work. In order to classify the included papers, two categories were defined according to the research questions and the keywords identified in the papers: This category shows how the use case template describes the SPL variabilities. & Santos Neto, P.A. The generic template is … Thus, with this result the hypothesis H 1 t (2014) present a case study with their approach. You can use a use case diagram to define it. 2013). Another distinguishing feature of this template is the use of local (with $) and global (with @) variables. 2000), a non-parametric method, for testing whether samples originate from the same distribution (an alternative for one-way ANOVA). two steps identified with the same number are alternative steps), had the best results. The more detailed a use case is, the easier it is to understand. ISS carried out the systematic mapping study, and identified the use case templates in the existing work. Tiwari, S, Gupta A (2013) A controlled experiment to assess the effectiveness of eight use case templates In: 20th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, vol. It's typically as… The accuracy was chosen as the measure of comprehension because we believe that the volunteers could only answer the questions of the comprehension test correctly if they understand the SPL use cases being evaluated. Finally, the third phase, Results, is responsible for reporting the study outcomes based on a classification scheme. This category reflects the research approach used in the papers and is independent of a specific topic (Petersen et al. Choi, W, Kang S, Choi H, Baik J (2008) Automated generation of product use case scenarios in product line development In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer and Information Technology.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. (2003) and Gallina et al. People typically adopt a standard use case template for recording the detailed information for the use cases As much as business cse analysis templates outline different business strategies and planning tools, use case templatesare focus more on the dynamics of business systems and how it interacts with the actors of the system. Morelli, LB, Nakagawa EY (2011) A panorama of software architectures in game development In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering(SEKE), 752–757.. Inf Softw Technol 53: 407–423. c : there is no statistically significant difference in terms of time required to understand the use cases’ behavior using the evaluated template structures. A use case specification provides details for a use case in a textual format . Twenty one were undergraduate Computer Science students, 20 were graduate students (16 MSc and 4 PhD) in Computer Science, and seven were developers working at GREat - Group of Networking, Software and Systems Engineering (GREat 2015). In this experiment the volunteers were required to answer comprehension questions regarding a domain model specified in use cases, class, and sequence diagrams. On the other hand, the Solution Proposal, which is a non-empirical research category, is the topic with more entries (9 papers - 73%). This template was found in 4 papers from the Step 03 (see Table 3). A scenario is a list of steps. In the following paragraphs we describe these structures and show examples of them in the specification of the use case “Withdraw Money” (Erikssona et al. Example of use case with Specific Section. From the templates with the Advice Use Case structure, we selected the template from Bonifacio and Borba (2009), because this is the newest with this kind of structure. For this comparison, they used five criteria: SPL activity support, RE covered tasks, MDD strategy support, the degree of automatic support with a given tool, and the type of validation of the proposals. USE CASE NAME : States the … Because the products of an SPL reuse common artifacts among themselves, the SPL approach maximizes the benefits of systematic and planned reuse. This is really important. 2014), we identified and classified nine templates for textual use case descriptions of Software Product Lines through a Systematic Mapping (SM) (Kitchenham and Charters 2007). The category Research Type was proposed by Wieringa et al. To define the unique role for each use case, you must document the relationship of the use case to the other behaviors of the system. Finally, Reinhartz-Berger and Sturm (2014) presented a controlled experiment where they examined the comprehensibility of domain models specified in a UML-based SPL Engineering method.
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