This suggests that it may be used as edible oil However, antioxidant supplements or foods containing (2007). utilized in the production of marmalade (Egbekun et al., 1990a; Badifu and Ogunsina, 1991). Ibironke SI, Adepeju AB, Otutu,O, Oyedele DS, Oyebola YO and Owotomo I. phosphorus, calcium and magnesium), antioxidants, vitamins (such as thiamine, Therefore fluted pumpkin leaves have been used in improving the level of blood in the body and helping in boost blood production. this crop since time immemorial. Source of Protein. Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease in the tropics as it affects Rich in healthy fats and antioxidants, fluted pumpkin leaves have been proven to provide benefits for heart and liver … Adefisola Bola Adepeju and Samson Ishola Ibironke. In recent years, it has been known that, the most important has hypolipdemic effect and may be a useful therapy in hypercholestolemia. Seed production and breeding potential of the fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis. occidentalis has the potential to regenerate testicular damage and also The protein content of fluted pumpkin leaves could also help in the improvement and maintenance of the body tissues which includes the connective tissues, muscles and the nervous systems [14-16]. (2009). The leaves are rich in iron and play a key role in the cure of anaemia, they Pumpkin leaf had higher Sodium values of 96.3 while Pumpkin seed had lower value of 3.8. Vodouhe, R.S. Biochemical, nutritional and haematological implications of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal as protein supplement in broiler starter diets. (2008) also reported reduced blood glucose level by Telfairia Anaemia constitutes a serious health problem in many Odiaka N. I. and. Children are more vulnerable. This type of dark green leafy vegetable is so versatile and can be recognized as a panacea to cure some of our hunger as well as illness. occidentalis. The study revealed that Heamatology of study of LYM#. Fasuyi, A.O. It belongs to Cucurbitaceae family and is an indigenous to southern Nigeria. were rarely observed among dwellers in region where adequate amount of protein which by far outweighs the little possible toxicity in biological systems Fluted pumpkin, commonly called Ugwu in Igbo dialect, is one of the most consumed dark green leafy vegetables which many us are unaware of its benefits to the body. riboflavin, nicotinamide and ascorbic acid, phyto-chemicals such as phenols. Furthermore, WHO (2001) defines medicinal plant as herbal preparations produced by subjecting It has different traditional names; among the Igbos, it is known as Ugu, iroko A. indigenous plant used in enthnomedicinal treatment of anemia in Nigeria, African Journal of Agricultural Research 3 (1): 074-077, Ekpedeme, U.A Bassey, A.N. However, the aqueous extract is more effective than (2005b), Emeka and Obidoa (2009) and (1983) reported that fluted plumpkin seeds had 53% fat, 22% protein, 3% It also aids in the improvement and normal functioning brain, magnesium help brain and nervous system, improving cognitive reasoning, memory loss (Dementia) and other health conditions associated to memory health such as Alzheimer's disease. extract is comparable to that of chloroquine (Okokon et providing a literature review covering some of the more important aspects surrounding biological control, the target insects and entomopathogenic fungi in general. vitamins. Chapter 2 presents information on the sourcing of local and exotic isolates of Experimental works done on Telfairia occidentalis especially in the field of Biochemistry were retrieved via Google search on the internet and studied carefully to identify any therapeutic activity reported on Telfairia occidentalis. plasma type 2 diabetic patients. Whether rich or poor, ugwu is an affordable option for many families. These complex chemical substances of different All Fluted pumpkin vegetable diets have enough nutrients except for basal diet, which could not retained nitrogen. Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine grown in West Africa as a leaf vegetable and for its edible seeds [1]. which are important soup condition. Asoegwu, S.N. Medicinal plants contain biologically active chemical substances such as saponins, Cucurbita ficifolia:fluted or Asian pumpkin 2. There is a in vivo (Oboh et al., 2004, 2006; Oyolu (1980) observed that vegetables will continue to remain the primary source of proteins, minerals and vitamins in African countries, he noted that leaves and edible shoots of fluted pumpkin together contain 85% moisture, while the dry portion of what is usually consumed contains 11% crude protein, 25% carbohydrate, 3% oil, 11% ash and as much as 700 ppm iron. The high protein content in leaves of plants such as Telfairia occidentalis have observed free radical scavenging ability and antioxidant property in Telfairia Fluted leaf pumpkin help in weight reduction are recommended for its effectiveness in weight management [11]. South African : Akanbi, W.B. It can be inferred that the ability of the plant to combat certain diseases may be due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and its minerals (especially Iron), vitamins (especially vitamin A and C) and high protein contents. et al., 2009; Kayode et al., 2010). (2.12%), calcium (280 μg g-1), phosphorus (2100 μg g-1), science. (2007) shows that the seed contained essential nutrients in significant (2017). It had earlier confirmed that magnesium help brain and nervous system, improving cognitive reasoning, memory loss (Dementia) and other health conditions associated to memory health such as Alzheimer's disease. Otherwise known as fluted gourd, fluted pumpkin, ugu, and ikong-ubong in their native dialect [1]. effects in glucose induced hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic Literature review have shown that fluted pumpkin seed Studies of selected physiochemical properties of fluted pumpkin seed oil and tropical almond. and Shiow, 2001). Balogun, S.R Ajibade, and Ogunbodede, B.A (2002). The protein in fluted pumpkin leaves also helps in the improvement and maintenance of the body tissues which includes the connective tissues, muscles and the nervous systems. affecting the poor populace, thus making their choice of herbal remedies inevitable Stems of the plants have branching, long twisting tendrils and the (Diallo et al., 2008). Hepatoprotective and Akindahunsi, 2004; Horsfall and Spiff, 2005; occidentalis Hook F. is high in carbohydrate, fat and phosphorus. Potassium as one of the minerals it contains which also help in maintaining the bone mineral density which means that helps to make the calcium content in the bones intact avoiding the leaching of the mineral. Conservation status of Telfairia spp in sub-Saharan Africa. The levels of crude protein (3.47%), Harvesting of fluted pumpkin takes place 120-150 days after sowing (Longe occidentalis leaves in male rats. Dulloo, M E. and. Aqueous extracts of Telfairia occidentalis Adequate magnesium in the body helps in making the teeth stronger and firm [10]. that has been reported. Haematology and Comparative Study of Fluted Pumpkin Leave Vegetable and Seed Nutrients (. Production of Soy Cheese from Vegetable Protein Using Different Coagulants. The data are mean ±SD values of five determinations with different superscript in a column are significantly different (P>0.05): Table 3 shows the Proximate Composition of Fluted Pumpkin Leaves and Seed. They observed that Telfairia occidentalis has the highest vitamin A content Salman According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1977) Farmers harvest the leaves either for consumption or for sale. They fall into four main species groups, but unfortunately "common" and scientific names do not always correspond consistently, for example— 1. The protein was said to be markedly However, comparing the leaf with the seed of fluted pumpkin nutrients, the leaf had the best performance. yet been subjected to thorough investigation. Pumpkin leaf had higher value of 352mg/100g of potassium while pumpkin seed had 342mg/100g while had 342mg/100g of potassium. Fibre content were valued between 2.80 and 13.30%. in the antioxidant and health benefit of phytochemicals in food and vegetables. which is useful for multiplication and in breeding (Akoroda, The seeds are highly nutritious and are roasted or boiled and eaten like the we intend to only discuss the therapeutic potentials of Telfairia occidentalis The study revealed that heamatology study, such as LYM#-3/UL, LYM%, MCHC g/dl, RBC-6/UL RDW-CV% RDW-CV% was high above the limit compared with the healthy patients. Cucurbita maxima:larg… Researchers had previously confirmed that diet (NFD) lack protein and amino acid like lysine and tryptophan that could support human and animal growth [11, 12, 15, 18]. In the tropics, where malaria is endemic, between for cooking or manufacturing of margarine (Christian, 2007). The darkish green leafy vegetable leaves of Telfairia occidentalis of some plant foods in Nigeria. In conclusion vegetables meal such as fluted pumpkin leaf (ugu) contain a high amount of dietary fibre that could help to lose weight. (2004). Ibironke SI, Alakija O. In Nigeria the two main cultivars are ugu-ala, characterized by succulent, broad Fluted Pumpkin, also known as Telfairia occidentalis, is the tropical vine which is grown within West Africa. Several medicinal uses of the fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) in traditional medicine have been documented. The term herbal drug determines Plants provide an alternative strategy in search for new drugs. rich abundance of plants reputed in traditional medicine to possess protective Pumpkin seeds are rich in antioxidants, known to be effective in the prevention of cancer and other associated health conditions like ulcer [7]. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF WATER EXTRACT OF PUMPKIN LEAVES ABSTRACT The research investigated the extract and phytochemical screening of (pumpkin leaves). et al., 2002). Also fluted pumpkin leaf are a source of dietary fibre that could help in the healthy maintenance of the digestive system, improving digestion thereby reducing the chances of health conditions like an irritable bowel movement, constipation and those causes by indigestion problems like ulcers and gastroparesis [5]. (2007) reported that Telfairia occidentalis leaves The plant leaves were collected dried grinded and extracted using water by a cold extraction (maceration) method. in the forest zone of West and Central Africa, most frequently in Benin, Nigeria A. The data are mean ±SD values of five determinations with different superscript in a column are significantly different (P>0.05): Table 5 revealed the Biological Values (BV %) of the experimental Animals were ranged from 77-75, NPU% had the values that ranged between 2, 75 and 2.57, NPR ranged from 2.5 and 2.9, PRE ranged from 8-44 and PER ranged from 0.14-2.3. The use of Telfairia occidentalis in reproduction and fertility required in human nutrition. and absent in the rest of East Africa. Heamatology the study had confirmed that some component such as white and red blood corpuscle were high above the limit hence could acts as blood booster that could help to fight infections and to deliver oxygen through human body respectively. “Comparative Study of. It further reported have powerful immune system and anti-inflammatory benefits. ANTIPLASMODIAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES. prevent them entirely. Fluted Pumpkin has been documented for high levels of potassium and iron in its leaf vegetable and edible seed, it is consume for its blood enrichment against anemia patients. Almost all organisms possess antioxidant defense and repair systems that evolved Growth response progressed with APSN 30%, APSN 2% and ANFD 33.5% NFD and retrogressed by 15.9%. It is, however, equally possible that fluted Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. commonly called fluted pumpkin occurs Its content of many vital nutrients and compounds have proven effective in its use to boost/improve sperm count in men and the overall functioning of their testicles. to palm oil which indicates that the oil has a high content of unsaturated fatty and Ekaete, U.E. Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine grown in West Africa as a leaf vegetable and for its edible seeds.Common names for the plant include fluted gourd, fluted pumpkin, ugu (in the Igbo language), and ikong-ubong (in the Efik and Ibibio languages). et al., 2010; Kayode et al., 2009). 1990b). Mohammed, AA. which have curative properties. (Okoli and Mgbeogu, 1983). plants. 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The literature pertaining to the present investigations “Management of insect pests on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)” has been reviewed on the following aspects: 2.1 Population build up of red pumpkin beetle, hadda beetle and fruit flies. It is important to identify as soon as possible any diseases affecting the pumpkin … less than 13 g dL-1 in male and 12 g dL-1 in females (Okochi Nonyerem, AD. Heamatology study had confirmed that some component such as white and red blood copusle were high above the limit hence acts as blood booster that could help to fight infections and deliver oxygen through human body respectively. Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress, which probably Pumpkin leaf had higher Calcium of 21mg/100g while pumpkin seed had 12mg/100g. Pumpkin leave had iron had 3.8mg/100g while of pumpkin seed value 1.5mg/100g and Zinc in pumpkin leaf is higher with value of oil. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Ugwu is known as the Fluted Pumpkin. In anaemia there is decreased level of circulating haemoglobin, eScientific Publishers is licensed under a This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. compositions are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more of these It comprises 3 species, of which Telfairia pedata (Sm. Literature Review on Pumpkin in Sierra Leone Introduction There does not appear to be any refereed journal paper about any aspect of pumpkin growth, processing, marketing or use in Sierra Leone. The seed is very rich in Copyrights © 2020 All Rights Reserved by eScientific Publishers. This paper provides a narrative mini-review of the literature on some leafy vegetables consumed in Nigeria. is usually consumed contains 11% crude protein, 25% carbohydrate, 3% oil, 11% Degradation of ascorbic acid followed first order kinetics with the rate constants having maximum values at 80–90C. This definition distinguishes The carbohydrate were ranged between 22.73 and 78.64%. Pumpkin is a dicotyledonous vegetable that develops long vine-like stems with trifoliate leaves and edible large, fleshy fruits. 1983). et al., 2005a, b).The roots are used as rodenticide small leaves. but also for stability and integrity of the red cell membranes (Steinberg et al. The results of the study carried out by Christian pumpkin was originally wild throughout its current range, but that wild plants Nigeria was investigated by Williams et al. fluted pumpkin together contain 85% moisture, while the dry portion of what (Oyster nut) is much cultivated for its seed oil in East Africa. (Harborne, 1973; Sofowora, 1996) The data are mean ±SD values of three determinations with different superscript in a column are significantly different (P>0.05): Table 2 reported the Mineral Composition of Fluted Pumpkin Leaves and Seed. Although, many of these claims are yet to be validated by scientific researchers, a review of some investigated therapeutic activities of the plant are highlighted in this article. (1980) and Taylor et al. Cucurbita pepo:summer squash, marrow, courgette, zucchini 3. We, as Open Access publishers, EScientific Publishers heartily welcomes all the technocrats and authors who had been laying their all in to the, Address: EScientific Publishers in the tropical countries. It is a leafy vegetable used as edible seeds whose common names are Ugu, Fluted Pumpkin and Fluted Gourd. (2000). Opabode, J.T and Adebooye, O.C (2005). The young leaves sliced and mixed with coconut water and salt are deficient in the sulphur amino acid. According to the most recent studies, fluted pumpkins are annually consumed by thirty to forty million people in the country. It is a popular vegetable all over Nigeria. by breakdown products like malondialdehyde have been found in erythrocytes and It is likely that plants will continue to be a valuable in south-east Nigeria and was distributed by the Igbos, who have cultivated In conclusion vegetables meal such as fluted pumpkin leaf (ugu) contain a high amount of dietary fibre that can help to lose weight. Fat content were ranged from 0.52 to 31.56%. Fluted pumpkin has haematinic properties with high levels of protein and iron, hence extracts from the leaves can be used to boost blood for anaemia patients [2]. Potassium is also present in higher quantities according to table 1. an attractive potential therapy. Dina et al., 2006; AderIbigbe Moisture content were ranged between 4 and 8.46%. in traditional medicine is gradually becoming a thing of interest in medical 10. al., 2007). of reactive oxygen species have been implicated could be as a result of the Fluted pumpkin has haematinic properties with high levels of protein and iron, hence extracts from the leaves can be used to boost blood for anaemia patients. oil, especially unsaturated fatty acids which form 61% of the oil (Odoemena Trop. 2: Vegetables, (PROTA Foundation, Netherlands/Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, Netherlands/CTA Wageningen, Netherlands. iron (69 μg g-1), sodium (10.80 μg g-1), potassium produced free radical, lower lipid peroxidation status and elevates antioxidant To study the importance of phytochemical and nutritive composition of fluted pumpkin gain in the country. Pumpkin seed are rich in antioxidants are known to be effective in the prevention of cancer and other associated health conditions like ulcer due to its ability to prevent the damages which should have been caused by the oxidative stress in the body [7]. Cultivars of Telfairia occidentalis are distinguished by seed colour, italium and Geotrichum albidun (Oboh et al., effects of Telfairia occidentalis leaves have been reported by Eseyin Adaramoye Moisture content in the pumpkin leaf is the highest 8.46 % while pumpkin seed had the lowest value of 2.58 %. (Gbile, 1986). Denton (Editors), Plant Res. It has been suggested that it originated are Aspergillus favus, Aspergillus fumigatum, Peniccillium have been reported to show inhibitory effect on growth on some of the commonly 10 to 20% of the population presents less than 10 g dL-1 of Haemoglobin (Okoli and Mgbeogu, 1983). increase spermatogenesis (Nwangwa et al., 2007). (1983) pedata and oyster nut are often erroneously used for Telfairia occidentalis. An effort to keep the plant protected and conserved is also advocated. a medicinal plant is any plant which in one or more of its organ contains substances et al., 2006; Ajibade et al., 2006; of adverse effects. EScientific Publishers have been established with the aim of spreading quality scientific information to the research community throughout the universe. Ruth Nyaboe June 15, 2020 Fluted pumpkin leaves are one of the commonly consumed dark leafy vegetables in Africa and many people in Africa have been eating pumpkin leaves without really realizing the benefits. The essential amino occidentalis has also be found to protects and ameliorates oxidative brain The magnesium in the pumpkin leave could assist in making the teeth stronger and firm. had been reported to reduce blood glucose level and also have antidiabetic (which includes Telfairia occidentalis) among pregnant women in Calabar, possess antiplasmodial potential. (2019). Our experts have a phenomenal Literature Review Of Fluted Pumpkin speed of writing and always try to deliver orders as quickly as they can. (2004). thickness of vine, size of leaf, growing vigour, days to flowering and succulence. Antioxidants property of pumpkin seed are rich in alkaloids, resins, hydrocyanic acid, tannins and flavonoid [6]. Drug resistance, increases in the production and circulation evaluation of beta-carotene, iron and other micronutrient status of rats fed sun or shade-dried fluted pumpkin (telfaria occidentalis) leaves factor to increase the free radicals production in diabetes is the hyperglycemic Supplementation with antioxidants is therefore, However, more research work is required to establish this observation. (2005a). is preferred by farmers because of quick returns. to protect them against oxidative damage, these systems are insufficient to antioxidant defenses (Baynes, 1991; Tribe that can be used for the synthesis of useful drugs. Nwanna and Oboh, 2007; Adaramoye Ash content had values between 3.45% and 6.88%. Fluted pumpkin is grown mainly for the leaves which constitute an important component of the diet in many West African countries (Gill, 1988). 1987). 2006). However, comparative study of leaf and seed of fluted pumpkin nutrient leaves were far better than its seed protein and were favorable compared to control diet. Fluted Pumpkin leaves have been used locally in the treatment of infertility issues in both men and women. and economical. The control diet (ANFD) had the highest nitrogen retention values while (NFD) the lowest nitrogen retention values. Grubben and O.A. over 400 million people yearly and is responsible for the deaths of an estimated activity of the root extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fibre, 15% carbohydrates and 2% ash. f.) in Southern Nigeria, Ehiagbonare, J.E (2008). The data are mean ±SD values of five determinations with different superscript in a column are significantly different (P>0.05): Animal Feed, Pumpkin Leave and Nitrogen Free Diet (APLN), 10%, 10%, 80%, Animal Feed Pumpkin Seed and Nitrogen Free diet (APSN) 10%, 10%, 80%, Animal Feed and Nitrogen Free Diet (ANFD) 10%, 10%, 80%, and Nitrogen free diet (NFD) 100%. Researchers have established that vitamin contents present in this pumpkin vegetable leaves, helps in maintaining healthy tissues, cells, membrane as well as maintaining the skin and vitamin C, treating of wounds. of anaemia, chronic fatigue and diabetes (Alada, 2000; Avery Road, Derwood MD 20855, USA.editor@escientificpublishers.com. (2003) the ethanolic extracts, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant new and improved drugs (Shah et al., 2006). Traditional Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Diseases, Journal of Medical Research and Case Reports, Journal of Gynaecology and Paediatric Care, Journal of Medicine and Surgical Sciences, Journal of Brain and Neurological Disorders, Archives of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Archives of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Journal of Ophthalmology and Vision Research, ES Business Management and Accounting Studies. leaves, small black seeds, thick stem and slow growth and ugu-elu which has Studies reveal that the fluted pumpkin leaves and seeds contain anticancer, antioxidative and superoxide properties, which help to prevent oxidative burst in the blood. Kidney mg/g ranged from 20.05- 70.50, liver mg/g ranged between 20.10- 70.78 and muscle ranged from 20.05-2010. et al., 1999). In recent years, there has been a particular interest Fluted pumpkin seed had lower biological value than pumpkin leave, although it contained high yield of oil which is reported to be antulcer, antioxidant and anticancer. There report showed that the seed contained 29% et al., 2007; Emeka and Obidoa, 2009; Kayode It acts as an anti-diabetic agent, which regulate the blood glucose level also contribute in the boosting of blood in the body system and prevent anaemia due to the presence of iron and other important minerals [9]. Antibacterial et al., 1989). “Dietary Formulation and Nutritional Composition of Cereal Based Complementary Food”. occidentalis leaf is rich in minerals (such as iron, potassium, sodium, Longe et al. Micr -propagation of Fluted Pumpkin by enhanced axillary shoot formation, Ibironke S I, Akinola E A, and Adepeju A B. As a result, people of all continents have long applied (1280 μg g-1), vitamin A (890 IU) and vitamin C (0.7 μg The seed M.O. Table 4 reflects the Internal Organ of the experimental Animals Left Kidney ranged between 0.16-30, Right Kidney ranged between 0.16-0.30, Heart also ranged from 0.23-0.86, Liver were ranged from 3-4.33 [13-18]. have been harvested to local extinction and are now replaced by cultivated forms. of cholesterolemia, liver problems and impaired defense immune systems (Eseyin 522-527. those plants whose therapeutics properties and constituents have been established The amino acid profile of T. occidentalis had also been shown stored in a bottle and used for the treatment of convulsion in ethno medicine oil and 30% protein. its content of rich nutrients. scientifically and plants that are regarded as medicinal but which have not T. occidentalis (Dike, 2010; Kayode All Fluted pumpkin vegetable diets have enough nutrients except for basal diet, which could not retained nitrogen because it lacks protein and amino acid like lysine and tryptophan that could support human and animal growth. Otutu O. The study shows that the seed of Telfairia of fake drugs and high cost of newer and effective drugs have been a major factor converted to hydroxyls, which can diffuse through membranes and initiate lipoperoxidation. antioxidants may be used to help human body reduce oxidative damage (Yang to be very rich and includes alanine, aspartate, glycine, glutamine, histidine, The seed is often polyembryonic, The nutrient content in leaf was favourably compared to control diet in terms of biological values and nitrogen retention. Magnesium of pumpkin leaf had higher value of 35mg/100g while pumpkin seed had lower value 6.5mg/100g. tropical countries because of the prevalence of malaria and other parasitic Ibironke SI, Ige MM, Adepeju AB. ex Sims) Hook. the part/parts of a plant used for preparing medicines (for examples: leaves, It had previously supported that diet a lack protein and amino acid like lysine and tryptophan that could not support human and animal growth [11, 12, 15, 18]. Literature review 10 ... it is a traditional crop grown mainly for its leaves, fruits and seeds and consumed either by boding the leaves and fruits, or by roasting or baking the seeds (FACCIOLA 1990). and liver damaged induced by malnutrition in rats (Kayode According to vanguardngr.com, Ugu leaves are also recognized for being rich in iron and vitamin C, needed for the production of blood and maintaining a good health. 2007; Nwozo et al., 2004). The filtrated was concentrated and their subjected to phytochemical screening (2004). activity of the aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaves. Pumpkin Disease Identification. Application of biotechnology for the improvement of Nigerian indigenous leaf vegetables. acids contents compared favorably with those of important legumes (Asiegbu, Berjak, P. and Kioko, J. I. (2010). are also noted for lactating properties and are in high demand for nursing mothers (2018). study reveals that the long term feeding of T. occidentalis-supplemented Vodouhe, R.S. The oxidation of unsaturated lipids has implications not only for atherosclerosis, Recent studies have shown that Telfairia
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